Translation Glossary of Terms

By Atlas LS

Translation Glossary of Terms

Translation Glossary of Terms

The following list is composed of the most common terms used in interpretation or translation. Understanding all the jargon of interpretation or translation is vital when it comes to building relationships personally or professionally.


Adaptation — The process of converting information into an appropriate format for the target language and culture.

Algorithm — “TM” applications employ matching algorithm(s) to retrieve similar target language strings, flagging differences.

Alignment — Alignment is the task of defining translation correspondences between source and target texts.

Alignment Tool — Application that automatically pairs versions of the same text in the source and target languages in a table. Also called bi-text tool.

Ambiguity — Situation in which the intended meaning of a phrase is unclear and must be verified – usually with the source text author – in order for translation to proceed.

Antonym — Antonyms are opposites words, that reside in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, e.g. In the pairs – male:female; long:short; up:down; and precede:follow.

Arabic Numerals — Set of ten numerals (0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9) that comprise the most commonly used symbolic representation of numbers throughout the world.

Artificial Intelligence — Branch of computer science devoted to creating intelligent machines that produced the first efforts toward machine translation.

Attribute — A property defined and applied to a Translation Memory units/segment to help sequence retrieval. Attributes are also those fields that define and qualify term bases.

Automatic Retrieval — When a translator moves through a document, TM’s are automatically searched and displayed. (Server based).

Automatic Substitution — Exact matches come up in translating new versions of a document.

Automatic Translation — Machine-based translation process not subject to input by a human translator.


Back Translation — Process of translating a previously translated text back into its source language.

Bidirectional — Script that normally reads from right to left but contains some exceptions in which other characters, like numerals, read from left to right. Hebrew and Arabic are examples of bidirectional languages.


CAT (Tools) — Computer-assisted translation (tools) – The process by which a human translator uses computer software to facilitate translation.

Common Sense Advisory — Market research agency providing data to operationalize, benchmark, optimize, and innovate industry best practices in translation, localization and associated industries.

Character Set — Collection of symbols or characters that correspond to textual information in a language or language group.

Cognate — In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin. An example of cognates within the same language would be English shirt and skirt.

Compilation — The activities required to check, process and output to one or multiple target formats in a single source publishing environment (e.g. Robohelp).

Collaborative Translation — Emerging approach to translation in which companies use the elements of crowdsourcing in a controlled environment for working on large corporate projects in short periods of time.

Concatenation — Procedure of linking multiple files or messages together as a single document, often to facilitate processes such as search and replacement, term list extraction, collocation finding, and repetition rate establishment.

Concordance — This feature allows translators to select one or more words in the source segment and the system retrieves segment pairs that match the search criteria.

Consistency — Measure of how often a term or phrase is rendered the same way into the target language.

Context — Information outside of the actual text that is essential for complete comprehension.

Controlled Vocabulary — Standardized terms and phrases that constitute a system’s vocabulary.

Controlled Language — Language in which grammar, vocabulary and syntax are restricted. In order to reduce ambiguity and complexity and to make the source language easier to understand by native and non-native speakers and easier to translate with machine and human translation.

Country Code — Abbreviation of two or three characters to signify a country or dependent area. ISO 3166 specifies country codes, such as “AL” for Albania and “CZ” for the Czech Republic. There are also country codes for telephone numbers, such as +1 for the U.S. and Can

CMS — (Content Management System) Tool that stores, organizes, maintains, and retrieves data.

Crowdsourcing — The practice of obtaining needed services, ideas, or content by soliciting contributions from a large group of people and especially from the online community rather than from traditional employees or suppliers

CT3 — Abbreviation for community, crowdsourced, and collaborative translation.

Cultural Adaptation — Adjustment of a translation to conform with the target culture.

Cultural Assessment — Examination of an individual’s or group’s cultural preferences through comparative analyses.

Culturally-Sensitive Translation — Translation that takes into account cultural differences.


DBE — Abbreviation for double-byte enabled.

Desktop Publishing — Applications like FrameMaker, PageMaker, and QuarkXPress to prepare documentation for publication.

Dialect — Variety of a language spoken by members of a particular locale and characterized by a unique vocabulary, grammar and pronunciation.

DITA — XML-Based architecture for authoring, producing and delivering technical information.

DNT — Abbreviation for do not translate. List of such phrases and words include brand names and trademarks.

Domain — The area of knowledge communicated within a text, translation, or corpus.

DTD — Document type definition. Description of how content should be structured, providing rules for tags and characteristics, to enable programs to more easily process and store the document. Commonly abbreviated DTD.

DTP: Desk Top Publishing — It’s about using specific software to combine and rearrange text and images and creating digital files.

Double-Byte Enabled — Quality of an application or program that supports double-byte languages. Commonly abbreviated DBE.

Double-Byte Language — Language – such as Chinese, Korean, and Japanese – that requires two bytes (16 bits) to represent each character precisely.

Dubbing — Recording or replacement of voices commonly used in motion pictures and videos for which the recorded voices do not belong to the original actors or speakers and are in a different language.

Dynamic Content — Data produced in response to changeable, unfixed and retrieved from a database through user requests.


Eastern Arabic Numerals — Set of symbols used to represent numbers in combination with the Arabic alphabet in various countries, including Afghanistan, Egypt, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, and also parts of India. Also called Arabic Eastern Numerals.

Editing — Editing – Second level of review in the traditional TEP process.

Encoding Scheme — System that assigns a numeric value to each character, in order to convert the character set to an automated form for transmitting and maintaining information.

Exact Match — Exact matches (during translation memory analysis) appear when the match between the current source segment and the stored one has been a character by character match. When translating a sentence, an exact match means the same sentence has been translated before. Exact matches also referred to as 100% matches.

Extended Characters — Characters that exceed the ASCII character range of seven bits, such as characters with diacritical marks or non-Roman characters.

eXtensible markup language (XML) — Metadata language used to describe other markup languages. Commonly abbreviated XML.


False Friends — False friends are pairs of words or phrases in two languages or dialects (or letters in two alphabets) that look or sound similar, but differ in meaning.

FIGS — Abbreviation for French, Italian, German and Spanish.

Functional Testing — Reviewing software applications and programs to ensure that the localization process does not change the software or impair its functions or on-screen content display.

Fuzzy Match — Indication that words or sentences are partially – but not exactly – matched to previous translations.
When the match (during Translation Memory analysis) has not been exact, it is a fuzzy match. Some systems assign percentages to these kinds of matches, in which case a fuzzy match is greater than 0% and less than 100%. Those figures are not comparable across systems unless the method of scoring is specified.

Fuzzy Logic — When exact matches cannot be found, Fuzzy Logic creates near matches in text, to translation memory terms.


GILT — Acronym for globalization, internationalization, localization, and translation.

GIM — Abbreviation for global information management.

Gist Translation — Use of human or machine translation to create a rough translation of the source text that allows the reader to understand the essence of the text.

Globalization (G11N) — The process by which regional economies, societies, and also cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.

Glocal — Combination of the words ‘global’ and ‘local,’ used to describe products or services intended for international markets and have been customized for different languages, countries, and cultures.

Glossary — A glossary, also known as an idioticon, vocabulary, or clavis, is an alphabetical list of terms in a particular domain of knowledge with the definitions for those terms.

GMX — GILT Metrics. GILT stands for (Globalization, Internationalization, Localization, and Translation). The GILT Metrics standard comprises three parts: GMX-V for volume metrics, GMX-C for complexity metrics and GMX-Q for quality metrics.


Homonym —  A homonym is one of a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings.


In Context Exact (ICE) Match or Guaranteed Match — An ICE match is an exact match that occurs in exactly the same context, that is, the same location in a paragraph.

In-Country Review — The evaluation of a translated text by an individual who resides within the country where the target text will be used.

Internationalization (I18N) — Internationalization is the planning and preparation stages for a product that is built by design to support global markets.

Interpretation — Process of rendering oral spoken or signed communication from one language to another, or the output that results from this process.


Language — System of signed, spoken, or written communication.

Language Tags and Codes — Language codes are closely related to the localizing process. They indicate the locales involved in the translation and adaptation of the product.

Language Combination — Group of active and passive languages used by an interpreter/translator.

Language Kit — Add-on feature. This feature permits a keyboard to produce character sets for a given language.

Language Pair — Languages in which a translator or interpreter/translator can provide services.

Language Services Provider (LSP) — An organization or business that supplies language services, such as translation, localization, or interpretation. Commonly abbreviated LSP

Leverage — The practice of reusing previously translated terms and phrases in new translations. Also, the rank which evaluates how much of the previously translated text can be reused.

Linguistic Parsing — The base form reduction is used to prepare lists of words and a text for automatic retrieval of terms from a term bank. On the other hand, syntactic parsing may be used to extract multi-word terms or phraseology from a source text. So parsing is used to normalize word order variation of phraseology, this is which words can form a phrase.

Literal Translation — Translation that closely follows the phrasing, order as well as sentence construction of the source text.

LISA — Localization Industry Standards Association.

LISA QA Model — A metric for the evaluation of translation quality developed by the Localization Industry Standards Association.

Localization (L10N) — Process of adapting or modifying a product, service, or website for a given language, culture or region.

Localization Engineering — Software engineering carried out to support localization. Activities include internationalization, bug fixing, functionality testing, dialog box resizing, help compilation, as well as other software-related activities. Most LSPs charge for these services by the

Localization Tool — Application that assists with the translation and adaptation required for localization.


Machine Translation (also known as automated translation) — Translation carried out exclusively by a machine. Commonly abbreviated MT.

Machine Translation Plus Translation Memory — workflow and technology process in which terms not found in translation memory are automatically sent to the machine translation software for translation.

Markup Language — The language that uses annotations to indicate how text should be formatted.

Match — that words or sentences are matched – either partially or fully – to previous translations.
Meaning-for-meaning translation — Translation for which the words used in both languages may not be exact equivalents, but the meaning is the same.

Mega-Language — of the ten most important languages on the web, including Chinese, Dutch, French, German, Italian, Japanese, Korean, Portuguese, Russian, and Spanish.

Metadata — Information that describes data.

Morpheme — unit of meaning in a language.

Mother Tongue — Native as well as first learned language of an individual.

MT — Abbreviation for machine translation.

Multi-Byte Character Set — Character set in which the number of bytes per character varies. Abbreviated MBCS.

Multi-Byte Language — Language that requires the use of a multi-byte character set.

Multiculturalization — Process by which the linguistic and cultural diversity among a group of people increases.

Multi-Language Vendor (MLV) — Language service provider that offers services in multiple language pairs. Abbreviated MLV.

Multilingual Workflow — Automation of business processes related to the development of multilingual products by managing multilingual content, usually through a translation management system, machine translation, and also translation memory.

Multinationalization — Process of expanding an organization’s presence into multiple nations. Commonly abbreviated M18N.

MultiTerm — The SDL Trados terminology tool. Latest version SDL MultiTerm 2009 as well as SDL MultiTerm Server 2009.


Native Language — First language that a human learns naturally, usually since childhood.

Networking (TM Server) — When networking during the translation it is possible to translate a text efficiently together with a group of translators.

Neutral Spanish (also Universal Spanish) — Spanish that is mutually intelligible by speakers from various parts of the Spanish-speaking world and is not immediately identifiable with any single regional variety of the language. No standards exist for defining neutral Spanish.

Next-Wave Language — One of the languages of growing importance on the web.


OLIF — This stands for open lexicon interchange format.

Ontology — Description of the relationships between concepts, objects, and other entities within a given field.


Plain English — Method of writing English that employs a clear and simple style, usually for the purpose of improving readability. Among its features are using only active verbs (no passive voices) and making sure that each word has only one meaning.

PM — Abbreviation for “project manager.”
Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. Commonly abbreviated PM.

PPW — Abbreviation for price per word.

Post-Editing — Process by which one or more humans review, edit, and improve the quality of machine translation output.

Project Manager — Individual who carries out management and coordination tasks for a given translation project. Commonly abbreviated PM.

Pre-Editing — Process by which a text is edited prior to translation in order to clarify ambiguous terms and increase translatability.

Pre-Translation — Phase of the translation process in which documents are prepared for conversion into another language. This usually includes an automated analysis against translation memories. so that previously translated text is inserted in a file, therefore avoiding rework and associated costs.

Project Setup — Translation preprocessing steps include tasks such as glossary and style guide preparation, project planning, file preparation, content familiarization, and training.

Practice —  Of checking a translated text to identify and correct spelling, grammar, syntax, and coherency and integrity errors, (usually carried out by a second linguist or translator. – not necessarily. Proofreading can be done by editors with no second language.

Pseudo-Localization — The process of faking translation of software or web applications before starting to localize the product for real. It is used to verify that the user interface is capable of containing the translated strings (length) and to discover possible internationalization issues.

Pseudo-Translation — A procedure which simulates how a translated document will look after translation and how much extra DTP or other work will be required before actual translation is done. This can help in setting the appropriate timelines of projects.


QA — Abbreviation for quality assurance. Process designed to ensure translation quality. Specific processes followed with the purpose of minimizing errors.

QC — Abbreviation for quality control.

QI — Abbreviation for quality improvement. Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance.

Quality Assurance — Process designed to ensure translation quality. Specific processes with the purpose of minimizing errors.

Quality Control — Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the target text is reviewed with the purpose of catching errors.

Quality Improvement — Quality improvement Process designed to ensure translation quality, in which the overall goal is to enhance performance.


RBMT — Abbreviation for rules-based machine translation.

Register — Measure of formality of language dependent upon the tone, terminology, as well as grammar implemented.

Repetition — Sentence or phrase that is repeated in the source text, often referred to a Translation Memory analysis.

Rich Media Content — Synonymous for interactive multimedia.
A broad range of interactive digital media that exhibit dynamic motion, taking advantage of enhanced sensory features such as video, audio and animation.

ROI — Return on Investment. The performance measure that evaluates the efficiency of an investment.

Roman Numerals — System of numerals that evolved from the system used in classical Rome, often used for purposes such as numbering pages in introductions or prefaces.


SAE J2450 — A metric for the evaluation of translation quality, originally developed for the automotive sector. The metric comprises error categorization and severity.

SDK — Abbreviation for software development kit.

Segment — Sentence or phrase that is separated from the rest of a text based on language construction rules such as punctuation.

Segmentation — Its purpose is to choose the most useful translation units. Segmentation is a type of parsing. It is done monolingually using superficial parsing and alignment is based on segmentation.

Simplified Chinese — Contemporary written Chinese language used in mainland China and Singapore.

SimShip — Simultaneous shipment. Abbreviation for simultaneous shipment.

Single-Byte Character Set — Character set in which a single 8-bit byte represents a character.

Single sourcing (Single Source Publishing) —  Single sourcing or single source publishing – Process of producing a document in one format and automatically translating or publishing it into multiple formats.

SMT — Abbreviation for statistical machine translation.

Software Development Kit — Documentation and source code that facilitate the process of developing programs that interface with a given product. Commonly abbreviated SDK.

Software Engineering — Process of translating and adapting computer software from one language and culture into another. Also referred to as localization engineering.

Source Code — Code that is compiled to develop a program.

Source Count — Number of words in a text to be translated. The count of words in the document.

Source File — File that contains the source document in its original form, as opposed to a generated file, and is also required for localization processes.

Source Language — Language of the text that to be translated. The language.

Source Text — Text that needs translation.

Source Text Analysis — Analysis of the source text prior to translation that provides a better idea of the difficulty of the translation.

SRX — Segmentation Rules eXchange (SRX). Intended to enhance the TMX standard so that translation memory data that is exchanged between applications can be used more effectively. The ability to specify the segmentation rules that were used in the previous translation may increase the leveraging that can be achieved.

Segmentation Rules eXchange (SRX) — The vendor-neutral standard for describing how translation and other language-processing tools segment text for processing.

Standard Line — Measure of the usual number of keystrokes per line in a certain text, which varies per country, and consists on average of 50 to 60 characters; commonly used for translation projects that are priced on a per line basis.

Statistical Machine Translation — Generation solutions that take a probability-based approach to translation through computational analysis of data, treating data as character strings, determining patterns, and also leveraging regularities. Commonly abbreviated SMT.

Style Guide — Document that describes the correct grammar, punctuation, spelling, style and numeric formats to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text.

Style Sheet — Document or template that describes the structure as well as format of a document, with instructions regarding fonts, page size, spacing, margins, paragraph styles and tag markups to ensure consistency and quality in a translated text.

Subtitles (also Captioning) — Subtitles are textual versions of the dialog in films and television programs. They usually display at the bottom of the screen. They can either a written form of the original language or a translation.

Synonym — Different words with almost identical or similar meanings, e.g. Student as well as pupil.

Syntax — The study of structure and elements that form grammatical sentences.


Tagging — Marking content in a document with information about its content.

Target Audience — Group of people who receive the information rendered by the interpreter in the target language.

Target Language — This is the language that a text is translated.

TBX — Abbreviation for term base eXchange. XML standard for exchanging terminological data.

Technical Translation — Translation of technical texts, such as user or maintenance manuals, catalogs, and data sheets.

TEP — Edit – Proofread Process.

Term — Word, phrase, symbol or formula that describes or designates a particular concept.

Term Extraction (also term harvesting) — Selecting terms in a text and placing them in a terminology database for analysis at a later time.

Terminology — Collection of terms.

Terminology Analysis — Process carried out prior to translation in order to analyze the vocabulary within a text. In addition, to analyze its meaning within the given context, often for the purpose of creating specialized dictionaries within specific fields.

Terminology Database — Electronic repository of terms and associated data.

Term Extraction — It can have as input a previous dictionary. Moreover, when extracting unknown terms, it can use parsing based on text statistics. Uses to estimate the amount of work involved in a translation job. This is very useful for planning and scheduling the work. Translation statistics usually count the words and estimate the amount of repetition in the text.

Termbase — Termbase is a database containing terminology and related information. Most termbases are multilingual and contain terminology data in a range of different languages.

Termbase Definition and the Structure of Entries — Termbase entries are structured in the following way:

  • Entry Level — Contains system fields and any descriptive fields that apply to the entry as a whole.
  • Index Level — Contains index fields with terms as content and any descriptive fields that apply to all terms in a given language.
  • Term Level — Contains any descriptive fields that apply to a given term.

    The termbase definition for a given termbase specifies the number and type of fields that a termbase entry may contain and the entry structure that entries must conform to. The entry structure specifies:

    • The number and type of fields that may exist at each level in the entry.
    • The hierarchical structure of fields within each level; fields nested or not.

Termbase Fields — The different types of field are as follows:

  • Index fields —  Contain the terms for each entry. Each index corresponds to one of the termbase languages.
  • Descriptive fields —  Contain descriptive information about the entry or language as a whole, or about the individual terms. Each descriptive field has a defined data type. Types of data include text, picklist, number, date, Boolean and multimedia file.
  • Entry class field — Specifies the entry class to which the entry belongs.
  • System fields —  Created and maintained by the system. These fields store tracking information for the entry as a whole or for individual fields. System fields in MultiTerm include the Entry number field and the set of four history fields. The Entry Number field automatically assigns to each entry at entry level; for more information about history fields, see below.
  • History fields —  MultiTerm uses a set of four history fields: Created on, Created by, Modified on and Modified by. History fields automatically assigns to each entry at entry level, and also to each index at the index level. For all other fields in the termbase, history fields are optional. The require commissioning in the Termbase Wizard. Once assigned, history fields are created and maintained by the system.
  • Term Link — Term Link (formerly TBX Link) is an XML namespace-based notation that enables specific identified terms within an XML document to be linked to an external XML termbase, including those in TBX – TermBase eXchange (TBX) format. The purpose of the Term Link specification is to provide a rigorous notation for linking embedded terms in an XML document to their entries in an external termbase.
    • Term Link is not yet an official standard, and its contents and format may change prior to official adoption.

Text Memory — The basis of the proposed Lisa OSCAR xml:tm standard. Text memory comprises author memory and also translation memory.

TBX — TermBase eXchange. This LISA standard revised and republished as ISO 30042. It allows for the interchange of terminology data including detailed lexical information.

Terminology — Terminology is the study of terms and their use.

Terminology Management — Quality translation relies on the correct use of specialized terms.

Textual Parsing — It is very important to recognize punctuation in order to distinguish for example the end of sentence from abbreviation. Thus, mark-up is a kind of pre-editing.

Term Extraction Tools — for extracting text automatically from text to create a termbase. Tools include SDL MultiTerm Extract 2009.

Term Base eXchange — XML standard for exchanging terminological data. Commonly abbreviated TBX.

Terminology Management —  Use of computer software to manage translation resources, create terminology databases for translation projects, and improve productivity and consistency.

Terminology Management Tool — Computer application. Facilitates terminology management.

Terminology Manager — Software application that facilitates the process of translation. This is done so, by interacting with a terminology database.

Terminology Software — Data processing tool that allows one to create, edit as well as consult text or electronic dictionaries

Text Expansion — Process that often occurs during translation in which the total number of characters in the target text exceeds that of the source text.

Text Extraction — The process of placing the text from a source file into a word processing file. This is for the use by a linguist.

Text Style — Characteristics of terminology, style and sentence formation within a given text.

TMX — Abbreviation for translation memory eXchange. Translation Memory eXchange (TMX) is a standard that enables the interchange of translation memories between translation suppliers.

Traditional Chinese — Original Chinese ideographic character set used in Taiwan, Hong Kong, Macau and also some Chinese communities who have not adopted the simplified characters used in the People’s Republic of China.

Transcreation — When new content is developed or adapted for a given target audience instead of merely translating existing material. It may include copywriting, image selection, font changes, as well as other transformations that tailor the message to the recipient.

Transcription — Process of converting oral utterances into written form.

Translatability — Degree to which a text is rendered into another language.

Translate-Edit-Proof — Most common set of steps used for linguistic quality assurance in translation production processes. Commonly abbreviated TEP.

Translation — Process of rendering written communication from one language into another, or the output that results from this process.

Translation Capacity — Average number of characters, words, lines, or pages that a professional translator can translate. This is done within a given time frame, such as a day, week, or month.

Translation Kit (also Localization Kit) — set of files and instructions given to an LSP by a client. The purpose of a translation kit is to provide LSPs with expectations. The subject matter as well as target audience, files and format needing translation, delivery expectations, special considerations and instructions.

Translation Management — The management of the translation workflow, often including the content assets also.

Translation Management System (also TMS) — Program that manages translation as well as localization cycles, coordinates projects with source content management, and centralizes translation databases, glossaries, and additional information relevant to the translation process. Commonly abbreviated TMS.

Translation Memory — Translated text segments stored in a database. A translation memory is a system which scans a source text and tries to match strings (a sentence or part thereof) against a database of paired source and target language strings with the aim of reusing previously translated materials.

Translation Memory eXchange (also TMX) — Standard for converting translation memories from one format to another. Commonly abbreviated TMX.

Translation Memory Plus Machine Translation — A workflow as well as technology process. Terms not found in translation memory, automatically sent to the machine translation software for translation. The results are then fed back into the translation memory. Commonly abbreviated TMT.

Translation Memory System — Computer-aided translation tool that offers translation suggestions from translation memory.

Translation Portal — Web-based service that enables translation agencies, freelance translators, and customers to contact one another. This is ideal for not just contact, but also to exchange services.

Translation Unit — This is the segment of text treated as a single unit of meaning.

Transliteration — Process of converting words from a source text or audio file into a written text that facilitates pronunciation of the words.

TM — Translation Memory, see Translation Memory.

Trados — SDL Trados is a leading Translation Memory Editor used in translation. Latest versions SDL Trados Studio 2009 and SDL Trados TM Server.


Unicode — 16-bit character set that is capable of encoding the characters of the world’s major language scripts.

Unicode Standard — Industry encoding standard that allows computers to represent and also manipulate text in most of the world’s writing systems.

Updating TM — A new translation updated to a TM after the translator accepts it. As always in updating a database, there is the question what to do with the previous contents of the database. A “TM” is modifiable by changing or deleting entries in the TM. Some systems allow translators to save multiple translations of the same source segment.

UTF-16, UTF-32, UTF-8 — UTF-16 – Abbreviation for 16-bit Unicode transformation format. UTF-32 – Abbreviation for 32-bit Unicode transformation format. UTF-8 -Abbreviation for 8-bit Unicode transformation format.

UTX — Universal Terminology eXchange (UTX). A format standard specifically designed for user dictionaries of machine translation. Also used for general, human-readable glossaries. The purpose of UTX is to accelerate dictionary sharing and reuse by its extremely simple and practical specification.


Voice-Over — Technique in which a disembodied voice narrates a film, documentary, or other visual media.


Word Count — The total number of words in a text. Typically used to price translation projects.

Word Delimiter — Character, such as a ‘space’ or ‘carriage return,’ that marks a distinction between words in a text.

Workflow Management — Computer or web-based applications used to direct translation and also localization work processes.


XLIFF — XML Localisation Interchange File Format. XLIFF provides a single interchange file format understood by any localization provider. This is the preferred way of exchanging data in XML format in the translation industry.

XML — Abbreviation for eXtensible markup language. Metadata language used to describe other markup languages. Commonly abbreviated XML.

XML Text Memory (xml:tm) — xml:tm (XML-based Text Memory) is the vendor-neutral open XML standard for embedding text memory directly within an XML document using XML namespace syntax.

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